Glossary
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B

Blast Furnace: Equipment used to produce metallic iron in the form of pig iron from iron oxides by using coke and/or charcoal as a reducer, generating liquid and/or solid pig iron, and liquid and/or granulated slag as a by-product.

Blast Furnace Lump Ore:
Iron ore particles with diameter between 6.35 mm and 50.0 mm, whose chemical and metal characteristics enable them to be fed directly into the blast furnace.


C

Charcoal: Obtained from burning wood, firewood or forest residue.

Capesize: A ship that transports solid bulk cargo, with transport capacity between 120,000 tonnes and 180,000 tonnes of net cargo.Concentration: An industrial process based on physical, chemical or biological treatments to increase the concentration of specific elements in the mineral desired.

Coking Coal
: Bituminous coal with the quality to produce coke that is suitable for blast furnaces. Normally used in coke furnaces to produce metals such as pig iron.

Coke: Obtained from an industrial process that transforms coking coal into coke.
D

Direct Reduction: A process that removes oxygen from iron ore without fusion.

F

Ferroalloys: Iron alloys that are composed of one or more chemicals. They are used to add other chemicals to cast metal, normally in steel production. The main ferroalloys are chromium, manganese, and silicon.

Fine Particles: Iron ore particles with diameter between 0.15 mm and 6.35 mm. They are apt for sintering. If smaller than 0.074 mm, they are ideal to be pelletized. (See Ultra-fines).
I

Indicated Resource: Indicated mineral resource is a part of the mineral resource in which the quantity, degree or quality, density, form and physical characteristics can be estimated with a sufficient level of precision to allow the use of appropriate techniques and economical parameters in order draw up the mining plan and assess the economic viability of the mine.

Iron Units: Unit used to measure the concentration of iron in the iron ore, equivalent to 1% of iron in one tonne of iron ore.

Inferred Resource:Inferred resource is part of the mineral resource in which the quantity, degree or quality, density, form and physical characteristics can be estimated based on geological evidence, in limited samples and reasonably acceptable, but not having the geological or degree continuity verified.


L

Long Ton:
Unit of weight, equivalent to 1,065.05 kilograms.


H

HBI - Hot Briquetted Iron: Sponge iron that has been processed into briquettes.

Garantia Real:Aquela constituída por gravame sobre determinado bem imóvel de propriedade do devedor.

Gravame: Ato que impede a negociação de determinado imóvel, junto ao Registro de Imóveis, evitando-se que possa ser vendido ou alienado.


M

Mining Right: The mining concession granted through a decree by the DNPM (National Mineral Prospecting Department of Brazil), allows industrial exploration of the mines, from the extraction of minerals to their processing.

Mineral Reserve: A Mineral reserve is subdivided to increase certainty about Probable Reserves and Proven Reserves. The Probable Reserves are less certain than the Proven Reserves.

MT: Million tonnes

Mtpy:
Million tonnes per year

N

NTKM: Net Tonne Kilometer, that is, the weight of goods transported excluding the weight of the wagon.

Navio Panamax:
Embarcação adequada para o transporte de granéis sólidos com capacidade de transporte entre 50.000 toneladas e 75.000 toneladas de carga líquida.

Navio VLOC:
Embarcação adequada para o transporte de granéis sólidos com capacidade de transporte acima de 300.000 toneladas de carga líquida.

P

Processing: The process of crushing, concentrating and classifying minerals through physical and chemical processes in order to obtain the ore or mineral with the desired quality.

Pellets: is formed of ultra-fine agglomerated iron ore particles, measuring between 8mm and 18mm, and the adequate quality for the iron oxide reduction process in metallic iron (pig iron or sponge iron)

Pellet Feed:
Fine mineral for pelletizing.

Pig Iron:
Product obtained from coke or charcoal in a blast-furnace.

Panamax:
A ship that transports solid bulk cargo, with transport capacity between 50,000 tonnes and 75,000 tonnes of net cargo.

Proven Reserves (measured):
a Proven Mineral Reserve is the economical part of the Measured Mineral Reserve stated in the preliminary feasibility study. This study must include correct information about mining, processing, metallurgy, and economy, in addition to other relevant factors that state and justify the economical extraction report.

Probable Reserves (indicated):
Probable Mineral Reserve is part of the economy mineral of the Indicated Resource and, under some circumstances, the Measured Resource demonstrated by at least one preliminary feasibility study. This study must include correct information about mining, processing, metallurgy, and economy, in addition to other relevant factors that state and justify the economical extraction report.


R

Resource: A Mineral Resource is the concentration or occurrence of natural, inorganic, or fossilized organic matter under or over the earth surface in such a form, quantity, degree or quality that it can reasonably be extracted profitably. The location, quantity, degree, quality, geological characteristics and continued availability of the resource are known, estimated or interpreted through specific geological evidence.

Recursos Indicados:
Recurso Mineral Indicado: é uma parte do recurso mineral na qual a quantidade, grau ou qualidade, densidade, formato e características físicas podem ser estimadas com um nível de precisão suficiente para permitir a aplicação da técnica e parâmetros econômicos apropriados, a fim de embasar o plano de mineração e a avaliação da viabilidade econômica do depósito.

Recursos Inferidos:
Recurso Mineral Inferido: é uma parte do recurso mineral na qual a quantidade, grau ou qualidade, densidade, formato e características físicas podem ser estimadas por evidências geológicas, amostras limitadas e razoavelmente aceitas, mas não sendo verificadas a continuidade geológica e o grau.

Reserva Mineral:
Reserva Mineral é subdividida para aumentar a certeza nas Reservas Prováveis e nas Reservas Comprovadas. As Reservas Prováveis tem um menor grau de certeza do que as Reservas Comprovadas.

Reservas Comprovadas (mensuradas):
Reserva Mineral Comprovada é a parte econômica mineral da Reserva Mineral Medida demonstrada no estudo de viabilidade preliminar. Este estudo deve incluir informações corretas de mineração, processamento, metalurgia, economia, além de outros fatores relevantes que demonstrem e justifiquem ao tempo do relatório a extração econômica.

Reservas Prováveis (indicadas): Reserva mineral Provável é a parte mineral econômica do Recurso Indicado, e em algumas circunstâncias do Recurso Medido demonstrado por, pelo menos, um estudo de viabilidade preliminar. Este estudo deve incluir informações corretas de mineração, processamento, metalurgia, economia, além de outros fatores relevantes que demonstrem e justifiquem ao tempo do relatório a extração econômica.
S

Sinter Feed: fine mineral particles for sintering.

Sponge Iron or DRI (Directly Reduced Iron):
Iron ore, in lumps or pellets, converted by the direct reduction process, used mainly as a substitute for scrap when making iron in an electric furnace.

Sintering or Melting:
Agglomeration of iron ore particles melted by burning fine coal particles.


T

Thermal Coal: A type of coal fit for energy generation because of its vaporization properties. It is used in the thermal energy stations.


Tonne or metric ton: Unit of weight, equivalent to 1,000 kilograms.

Tonelada:
Unidade de medida de massa, equivalente a 1.000 quilogramas.


U

Ultra-fine particles:
ultra-fine particles of iron ore, measuring less than 0.074mm, obtained from mining, processing and handling.

V

VLOC (Very Large Ore Carrier):
A ship that transports solid bulk cargo, with transport capacity above 300,000 tonnes of net cargo.



Unidades de Ferro: Medida do teor de ferro no minério de ferro que é equivalente a 1% do conteúdo de ferro em uma tonelada de minério de ferro.


V

VLOC (Very Large Ore Carrier): A ship that transports solid bulk cargo, with transport capacity above 300,000 tonnes of net cargo.

Unidades de Ferro: Medida do teor de ferro no minério de ferro que é equivalente a 1% do conteúdo de ferro em uma tonelada de minério de ferro.


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